Are You Genuine, Or Just A Dream?
What is shadow, what is light? asks Dr. George, a Vancouver, B.C., psychologist, echoing Plato's parable. Surely what we take into account to be “genuine”, “out there”, is not as self-evident as at initial seems.
“The framework of ordinary reality is created of our assumptions and expectations, our desires and fears. The angry dwell in a planet of enemies the ambitious, in a planet of possibilities the customer, in a planet of commodities. These are not just 'attitudes' — they really figure out, to a huge extent, our really perceptions,” writes Dr. George.
Even our awareness of our personal bodies is a mental construct, the author claims. As for memory, that, as well, is not what it appears. “The image we summon from the vault of memory is additional like an oil painting of the bygone occasion than like a photograph.”
What most strongly colours our view of “reality” is our planet view. This is our set of beliefs which infuse every thing we do or assume and which we inherit initial from our parents and secondly, from the society about us.
Dr. George writes, “The foundations of belief about cosmos, society, physique and self are laid even just before we completely study to speak. All through life, these primordial convictions will stay not possible to express — and hence not possible to query.”
Of course, the irony is that, if Dr. George is appropriate, then his postulates are also portion of 1 planet view amongst quite a few!
What ever our planet view may well be, and wherever it may well come from, it quickly requires on an “aura of absolute reality.”
And therefore it is extraordinarily tricky to alter someone's planet view. The author draws upon the perform of Jean Piaget to clarify how we preserve our planet view intact. We either assimilate or we accommodate challenges to our sets of beliefs. That is, we either preserve our planet view unchanged by fitting the new data into it, or we alter the planet view just adequate to adapt to the challenge.
Dr. George adds that we may well do neither. We may well basically ignore the new data. (Shades of bigots and zealots!) The third solution is strongly influenced by what other folks about us are saying.
This brings us to what the book is about. And that is, experiences which, even though statistically typical, do not match the prevailing planet view of the “modern day West [which] is mostly defined by science.”
As the author writes, science “does not have a location for encounters with spirits, for souls that leave the physique or reincarnate or for mental powers that are not topic to the limitations of the body's muscle tissues and senses. The mainstream planet view could accommodate guests from other planets, offered they got right here by way of technologies rather than magic and even strange creatures living in lakes or forests would be acceptable, if they turned out to be biological entities of some sort. But even these possibilities are not presently accepted, for lack of convincing proof.”
Uncommon events (i.e. experiences which challenge one's planet view) come either from the outdoors (weird happenings) or the inside (a thoughts that itself functions in an uncommon manner).
Right here is a summary of Dr. George's outdoors and inside effects:
a) External influences
* Social cues from other individuals (who are also, e.g., seeing a ghost)
* Impaired sensory input (e.g., dim light, drums, flashing lights)
* Electromagnetic circumstances (e.g., thunderstorms or quartz deposits)
* Uncommon all-natural events (e.g., hordes of parachute spiders)
* Meeting “an actual discarnate spirit or Sasquatch or UFO occupant, if certainly there are such factors.”
b) Internal influences
“Most supranormal phenomena are seasoned by individuals who are neither mentally nor neurologically disordered in any apparent way.” They generally keep silent, writes Dr. George, to prevent the threat of getting their honesty or their sanity questioned.
Explanations for supranormal events fall into 3 categories:
* Conventionalist — there is some prosaic cause
* Extentionalist — adds to the science planet view with such propositions as effective spirits or transcendent faculties.
* Anomalist — this outlook says that paranormal theories are inadequate, but that the conventionalist point of view does not clarify every thing, either.
The dictionary-format of the book tends to make it uncomplicated to appear up what ever paranormal, mystical or transcendental expertise interests the reader. I was disappointed there was no entry for “crop circles”.
Let's appear at two entries selected at random.
“A false perception of smell. Olfactory hallucinations can function in epilepsy and schizophrenia, but are most generally reported by sufferers of hysteria. Mysterious odors are occasionally sensed in the hypnagogic state. See also odors of sanctity, poltergeist.”
4 pages on OBEs inform us that anyplace from eight to 15% of the common population report such an expertise. “Amongst subpopulations such as college students, it is considerably greater, up to 48%, in some samples.” Typical individuals as effectively as the mentally disturbed have OBEs, and reports date back thousands of years. Even St Paul appears to refer to an OBE [Corinthians 12:2].
Waves of interest in OBEs have swept by means of society, such as throughout the time of the Gnostics [early A.D.] and the Middle Ages. Witches in the Renaissance and Reformation have been normally believed to conveniently be capable to travel outdoors their bodies. Such beliefs waned till revived in the middle 1800s when Spiritualism and Theosophy gained quite a few followers.
Science started to take an interest and had to speedily drop the accusation that an OBE was an hallucination, a sign of mental illness. Study throughout the final 25 years has examined OBEs in a quantity of techniques. Dr. George describes the common expertise of individuals who spontaneously undergo an OBE and notes that they seem “fairly vivid and realistic, with out the shifting, blurred nature of dreams.”
About 15% of OBE experients claimed that they discovered factors about distant locations which they “could not have obtained if their senses had been restricted to the instant vicinity of the physical physique.” Experiments to investigate these claims have so far been inconclusive.
Are there variations amongst OBE experients and individuals who have not had such an expertise? Not in terms of age, sex, education, social class or religious convictions. OBEs can come about to everyone. But OBE experients do have a tendency to be additional apt at absorption, to be additional probably to have lucid dreams, to practice meditation and to score greater on tests of hypnotizability.
Brain waves of persons in an OBE recommended “the subjects have been awake and paying interest to one thing.” None of the theories place forward to clarify OBEs in existing terms of psychophysiological functioning has been satisfactorily verified.
Dr. George lists quite a few other references inside the text which present more data on the subject, plus he lists many articles for additional reading.
This is a effectively-organized book. Every single entry is richly cross-referenced. The book is rounded out with an Appendix (about correlations), a Bibliography and a thorough Index.